Courtesy name Zhiying, pen name Yingguan, female, ancestral home in Wuzhen, Zhejiang Province, she was a poet and calligrapher and also pioneer of Chinese modern women's liberation movement. She was knowledgeable and talented, and had a strong ambition. She had the reputation of being a brilliant person in the Qing Dynasty.
As the wife of Zhang Taiyan, a Confucian master and the master of philology, Tang Guoli has a great reputation, especially in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. There were many guests attending their wedding ceremony which had a large scale that is hardly comparable. It is still enjoyed by some predecessors who are familiar with modern anecdotes and like to write beautiful proses. Zhang was from Cangqian Town of Yuhang, Tang was from Wuzhen, and a Brook Tiao from west to east connecting them together.
Tang Guoli went to Jiangyin with her parents when she was two years old. At the age of seven, Tang Guoli moved to Hankou. When his father died when she was nine years old, his mother came back to Wuzhen with three children, to live in her uncle's house. As the eldest daughter, Tang Guoli helped her mother share the burden of the family. She did housework in the daytime and read Tang poems and filled in Song poems in the evening depending on a few words which were learnt from his father before.
Tang Guoli was 23 years old in 1905, when the bourgeois revolution had risen in China. She was also deeply influenced by new ideas. She acted with a new style of feminine demeanor and entered Shanghai Wuben Girls’ Middle School with the support of her uncle. During her stay in school, she actively participated in the patriotic revolutionary movement. In the summer of 1907, she graduated top of her class. After returning to her hometown, she was employed in Wuxing Private Girls' School. First as a teacher, then as a supervisor, and finally she became a principal headmaster.
In the autumn of 1911, she left Wuxing Girls’ School and went to Shanghai to establish Shenzhou Girls' School and Shenzhou Daily with the invitation of her old classmate in Wuben Girls’ Middle School. Her marriage with Zhang Taiyan doomed her to endure continuous suffering. She criticized Yuan Shikai, defended Sun Yat-sen, attacked Chiang Kai-shek and fought against Wang Ching-wei. She never lost her dignity when she came across all the difficulties.
On May 24, 1949, Tang Guoli was delighted when Shanghai was liberated. In 1950, she returned to Suzhou and enthusiastically participated in the work of the government. She was elected as the first people's representative of Suzhou and Jiangsu Province, and also served in some public offices. In her later years, she was extremely concerned about Taiwan's returning to the mainland and the great cause of reunification of the motherland. She deeply missed her relatives and old friends in Taiwan and often wrote memorial articles and appealed to Taiwan's people of insight to promote the reunification of the motherland as soon as possible.
In 1979, the Complete Works of Zhang Taiyan was published, and Tang Guoli's long-cherished wish for decades was finally came true.
Tang Guoli spent her youth in Wuzhen, but seldom came back after she left. However, Tang could not help to miss her hometown and express her feelings in her poems for many times in her later years. On the morning of July 27, 1980, Tang Guoli died of disease in Suzhou at the age of 98. In 1986, her tomb was moved to the side of Zhang Taiyan's at the foot of Nanping Mountain, near the West Lake, Hangzhou, and Sha Menghai inscribed the tombstone for her.
Tang Guoli is good at poetry and calligraphy. She is the author of Poetry Manuscript of Yingguan and Ci Manuscript of Yingguan. Her calligraphic works which created at the age of 90s have been exhibited at home and abroad for many times.Keyword: